Chronic kidney disease differentially methylated regions are localized to kidney-specific enhancer regions. (A) RefSeq annotation of the DMRs. Relative enrichment ratio of the DMRs compared with the representation of the different elements on the methylation microarray. TSS, transcription start site; TTS, transcription termination site. (B) DMRs overlap with regulatory element (chromatin state) annotation maps of renal tubule epithelial cells (HKC8) and adult kidney cortex, indicating that most differentially methylated cytosines are localized to enhancer (yellow and orange) regions in kidney epithelial cells. The color code annotation of the chromatin state map is provided bottom right. (C) Chromatin annotation of the DMRs in five different ENCODE cell lines (H1, human embryonic stem cells; HepG2, hepatocytes; HUVEC, endothelial cells; K562, erythroid cells; NHLF, human lung fibroblasts).