Growth rate predictions for 22 single knockout E. coli mutants using FBA, MOMA, ROOM, and RELATCH with the tight parameter values. (a) FBA, (b) MOMA, (c) ROOM, (d) RELATCH. The large black circles represent the growth rate of the parental strain. The average squared errors across all mutant (ASE; units are hr-2) and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) are shown for each method, and the horizontal error bars indicate the standard deviations across the triplicate experiments. Wt, wild type.