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Figure 2 | Genome Biology

Figure 2

From: Autism genetics: searching for specificity and convergence

Figure 2

Emerging biological themes in ASD. (a,b) Predominant areas of neuroanatomical convergence in ASD. (a) Aberrant brain growth trajectories, with the size of ASD brains outlined in red against a background of normal brains [144146] (images adapted from [157]); (b) abnormal cortical columns [151]. (c,d) Systems-level convergence in ASD. (c) White matter tract and functional connectivity abnormalities [126, 147150, 152, 153] (images reproduced with permission from Mark Bastin, University of Edinburgh, UK); (d) excitation/inhibition network imbalances [93, 132, 136141], (e-g) Genetic convergence at the cellular and molecular levels. ASD-associated genes implicated in (e) activity-dependent protein synthesis [17, 21, 23, 79, 109, 113123], (f) neuronal activity [21, 22, 25, 70, 105112], and (g) neuronal cell adhesion [2022, 3437, 4952, 68, 75, 79, 93, 109, 126129, 131137].

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