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Table 2 Orthologous candidate genes associated with human alcohol phenotypes, and their differential expression in three model organisms

From: The genetic basis of alcoholism: multiple phenotypes, many genes, complex networks

Human Fly Mouse Rat
Protein (gene symbol) Phenotype and reference(s) Gene functiona Gene symbol Phenotype and reference(s) Gene symbol Phenotype and reference(s) Gene symbol Phenotype and reference(s)
Adducin 1 (ADD1) Alcohol dependence [40] Membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein that promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network hts Ethanol knockdown [94] Add1 Alcohol consumption [96] Add1 Alcohol consumption [97]
Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) Alcohol dependence [25, 31] Mediates odorant detection via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration Ac3 Ethanol knockdown [98] Adcy3 Alcohol consumption [96] Adcy3 Alcohol consumption [66]
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1) Alcohol consumption [99] Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family; binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal CG31075 Ethanol knockdown [60, 93] Aldh1a1 Alcohol consumption [100] Aldh1a1 Alcohol consumption [97]
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1 (ABCB1) Alcohol dependence [25] Member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells Mdr50 Ethanol knockdown [93] Abcb1b Alcohol consumption [96] Abcb1a Alcohol consumption [66]
Crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB) Alcohol dependence [41] Member of the small heat-shock protein family; may contribute to the transparency and refractive index of the lens; expressed widely in many tissues and organs l(2)efl Ethanol knockdown [60, 93, 94] Cryab Alcohol consumption [96, 101] Cryab Alcohol consumption [67]
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule like 1 (DSCAML1) Alcohol dependence [25] Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance CG42256 Ethanol knockdown [93] Dscaml1 Alcohol consumption [96] Dscam Alcohol consumption [66]
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) Alcohol consumption [65] The protein is one of several forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, identified as a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes; catalyzes the production of GABA Gad1 Ethanol knockdown [93] Gad1 Alcohol consumption [96, 101] Gad1 Alcohol consumption [66, 97]
Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3) Alcohol dependence [40] A protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with lectin chaperones calreticulin and calnexin to modulate folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins ERp60 Ethanol knockdown [93] Pdia3 Acute ethanol injections [102] Pdia3 Alcohol consumption [97]
Protein kinase C, alpha (PRKCA) Alcohol dependence [25, 31] The protein is a calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent, serine- and threonine-specific enzyme; plays a role in many different cellular processes inaC Ethanol knockdown [92, 93] Prkca Alcohol consumption [96] Prkca Alcohol consumption [66]
Solute carrier family 2, member 14 (SLC2A14) Alcohol dependence [25] Member of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family that facilitates glucose transport Glut1 Ethanol knockdown [93] Slc2a3 Alcohol consumption [101] Slc2a3 Alcohol consumption [66]
Tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3) Alcohol dependence [22] Belongs to a family of proteins that function as receptors for tachykinins; associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system Takr99D Ethanol knockdown [93] Tacr3 Alcohol consumption [96] Tacr3 Alcohol consumption [66]
  1. aObtained from GeneCards® [103].
  2. GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid.