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Table 2 Summary of Giardia kinome classification

From: The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology

Group Family Subfamily Count ORF ID Notes
Primordial kinases in Giardiastrain WB (core kinome plus Nek1)
AGC Akt   1 11364 Metabolic rate control
AGC NDR NDR-unclassified 2 8587, novel Mitotic exit, morphology, centrosomes
AGC PDK1   1 113522 Lipid signaling, AGC master kinase
AGC PKA   2 11214, 86444 cAMP responsive kinase
AGC PTF FPK 1 221692 Potential flippase kinase
CAMK CAMK1   1 11178 Calcium-dependent signaling
CAMK CAMKL AMPK 3 14364, 16034, 17566 Energy metabolism
CK1 CK1 CK1-D 1 7537 Absent from ciliates and plants
CMGC CDK CDC2 3 15397, 8037, 9422 Master kinase of cell cycle
CMGC CDK CDK5 1 16802 Non-cell cycle CDK
CMGC CDKL   1 96616 Functions unknown
CMGC CK2   1 27520 Diverse functions, hundreds of substrates
CMGC CLK   1 92741 Splicing and other functions
CMGC DYRK DYRK1 1 101850 Not in ciliates, Trichomonas, or moss
CMGC DYRK DYRK2 3 137695, 17417, 17558 Varied functions
CMGC GSK   2 17625, 9116 Glycogen synthase kinase 3. Diverse functions
CMGC MAPK ERK1 1 17563 Canonical MAPK pathway
CMGC MAPK ERK7 1 22850 Variant MAPK gene
CMGC RCK MAK 2 14172, 6700 Meiosis, flagella
CMGC RCK MOK 1 14004 Flagellar regulation
CMGC SRPK   1 17335 Splicing
Other Aur   1 5358 Mitotic kinase
Other Bud32   1 16796 Telomere associated (KEOPS complex)
Other CAMKK   1 96363 CAMK kinase
Other CDC7   1 112076 Cell cycle
Other IKS   1 137730 Not in ciliates or moss
Other NAK NAK-unclassified 2 12223, 2583 Varied functions
Other NEK NEK1 1 137719 Flagellar and centrosomal functions. Only Nek with clear non-excavate orthologs
Other PEK GCN2 1 12089 Response to amino acid starvation
Other PLK PLK1 1 104150 Mitotic kinase. Lost in plants
Other SCY1   1 8805 Cryptic functions
Other TTK   1 4405 Not in ciliates or moss
Other ULK Fused 1 17368 Varied functions
Other ULK ULK 1 103838 Autophagy
Other Uni1   1 16436 Uncharacterized. Lost in plants, fungi, animals
Other VPS15   1 113456 Vesicular transport, autophagy
Other WEE WEE-unclassified 1 115572 Key cell cycle kinase
Other WNK   1 90343 Osmotic balance
PKL PIK FRAP 1 35180 Metabolic rate control (mTOR/TOR)
PKL PIK PIK-unclassified 1 16805 Weakly similar to ATR, but may be a lipid kinase
PKL RIO RIO1 1 17449 Ribosome biogenesis
PKL RIO RIO2 1 5811 Ribosome biogenesis
STE STE11 CDC15 2 16834, 6199 Functions in mitotic exit; lost in plants and holozoans
STE STE11 STE11-unclassified 1 1656 MAP kinase kinase kinase
STE STE20 FRAY 1 10609 Not in ciliates, usually co-occurs with Wnk
STE STE20 MST 1 15514 NDR kinase
STE STE20 PAKA 1 2796 Transduces membrane signaling from small GTPases
STE STE20 YSK 1 14436 Universal STE20 kinase
STE STE7 MEK1 1 22165 MAP kinase kinase
Giardia -specific classes and unique kinases
Other Nek Nek-GL1 11 Table S1a  
Other Nek Nek-GL2 3 Table S1a  
Other Nek Nek-GL3 4 Table S1a  
Other Nek Nek-GL4 32 Table S1a  
Other Nek Nek-Unclassified 147 Table S1a  
CMGC CMGC-GL1   2 17139, 21116 Divergent pair of CMGC-like kinases
Other Other-GL1   3 17392, 17378, 6624 Trio of kinases with no specific homologs
Other Other-unique   8 Table S1a Kinases with no specific homologs
CMGC CDK CDK-unclassified 3 11290, 4191, 14578 Divergent cyclin-dependent kinase
CAMK CAMK-unique   1 13852 Divergent CAMK group member
CAMK CAMKL CAMKL-unclassified 2 14661, 9487 Divergent CAMKL family member
Non-protein kinases from PKL
PKL CAK ChoK 1 4596 Choline and aminoglycoside kinase
PKL CAK FruK 1 2969 Fructosamine kinase
PKL PIK PI3K 2 14855, 17406 Phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase
PKL PIK PI4K 1 16558 Phosphatidyl inositol 4' kinase
Basal kinases found in Trichomonas , but not Giardia
AGC MAST MAST    Microtubule-associated serine kinases. Lost in fungi
Atypical TAF1     Basal transcriptional machinery, TFIID subunit
CAMK CDPK     Calcium-dependent protein kinase. Lost from unikonts
CK1 TTBK     Tau tubulin kinase. Found in unikonts, some chromalveolates, and excavates
CMGC CDK CDK7    Transcription initiation and DNA repair: subunit of TFIIH
CMGC CDK CDK12 (CRK7)    Phosphorylates CTD of RNA polymerase II
CMGC DYRK YAK    Lost in metazoans. Possible function in splicing
Other TLK     DNA break repair. Lost in fungi, Dictyostelium
PKL PIK ATM    DNA break repair
PKL PIK ATR    DNA break repair
CMGC CDK CDK20 (CCRK)    Cilium-associated, CDK-activating kinase. Found in unikonts, algae, and Trichomonas
TKL      Diverse group related to tyrosine kinases
Basal kinases found in Leishmania but not Giardia or Trichomonas
PKL ABC1 ABC1-A    Mitochondrial kinase
PKL ABC1 ABC1-B    Mitochondrial kinase
PKL ABC1 ABC1-C    Mitochondrial kinase
HisK PDHK BCKDK    Mitochondrial kinase
HisK PDHK PDHK    Mitochondrial kinase
CMGC DYRK DYRKP    Splicing? Also lost in animals, fungi, Dictyostelium
PKL PIK DNAPK    DNA break repair. Absent from fungi, nematodes, insects, some plants
Basal kinases not found in excavates
Other IRE     Endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response
Other PEK PEK    Endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Absent from ciliates
Other NAK MPSK    Secretory pathway function. Absent from ciliates
Other BUB     Mitotic spindle checkpoint. Absent from ciliates
CMGC CDK CDK8    Phosphorylates CTD of RNA polymerase II
CMGC CDK CDK11    Mitotic spindle function? Absent from fungi
CMGC DYRK PRP4    Splicing. Lost in fungi
PKL PIK SMG1    Nonsense-mediated decay of spliced transcripts. Absent from ciliates
HisK HisK     Histidine kinases. Absent from metazoans
PKL Alpha VWL    Functions unknown. Absent from metazoans
AGC PKG     cGMP-activated protein kinase. Absent from fungi, Dictyostelium
PKL ABC1 ABC1-D    Mitochondrial kinase. Absent from ciliates
Atypical G11     Function unknown. Absent from ciliates
Other PLK SAK    Mitotic kinase. Absent from plants
Other Haspin     Functions in mitosis. Absent from ciliates
AGC RSK     Ribosomal S6 kinase. Excavates lack conserved substrates sites in tail of ribosomal protein S6
CAMK CAMKL MARK    Microtubule affinity-regulating kinase. Absent from plants
Other kinases shared between excavates and one other ancient group
CAMK CAMKL LKB    Activator of other CAMKL kinases. Found in excavates and unikonts, lost in Giardia and L. major
CAMK CAMKL CIPK 1 16235 Found in plants and excavates. CBL-interacting protein kinases
CK1 CK1 CK1y    Found in plants and Trichomonas
  1. aSee Additional file 1 for details. BCKDK, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; PDHK, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; RSK, ribosomal S6 kinase; TLK, Tousled-like kinase; TOR, target of rapamycin. See Additional file 4 for definitions of other proteins.