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Table 1 Giardia protein and lipid kinases and protein phosphatases published to date

From: The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology

Kinase ORF ID Localization (immunofluorescence, tag or specific antibody) Protein expression (immunoblot) Reported function Reference
Aurora kinase (AurK) 5358 Interphase: nuclei. Mitosis: activated by phosphorylation. pAurK: centrosomes, spindle, anterior PFR, median body, parent attachment disk Constant in encystation Mitosis, cell cycle (inhibitors) [52]
PKAc 11214 Basal bodies, anterior, caudal PFR. Encystation: basal bodies only Constant in encystation Encystation, excystation (inhibitors) [13, 14]
PKAr 9117 Basal bodies, anterior, caudal PFR. Encystation: greatly decreased Strongly decreased in encystation Decreases activity of PKAc [14]
Akt (PKB) 11364     [47]
ERK1 17563 Median body, outer edge of attachment disk Gradually reduced during encystation Reduced activity in encystation [16]
ERK2 22850 Nuclei, caudal flagella. Encystation: cytoplasmic, punctate Not greatly changed in encystation Reduced activity in encystation [16]
PI3K1 14855    Growth (inhibitors) [48, 49]
PI3K2 17406    Growth (inhibitors) [48, 49]
PI4K 16558    Growth (inhibitors) [48]
PKA 86444 [Reported as a PKCβ]    [24]
TOR 35180     [48, 50]
Protein phosphatase      
PP2Ac 5010 Basal bodies, anterior, caudal, posterior-lateral PFR. Encystation: localization to anterior PFR lost, cyst wall Highest in cysts, stage I excystation Encystation, excystation (inhibitor, antisense) [15]
  1. PFR, paraflagellar rod. See Additional file 4 for definitions.