Evolutionary relationships and domain architecture of the tubby family proteins. (a) Evolutionary relationships between the tubby family proteins from different species. Sequences were aligned using the neighbor-joining method in ClustalW2 and the phylogenetic tree was drawn using Mega 5 . Bootstrap values were calculated over 1,000 iterations and values greater than 50% are shown as percentages next to branches. The proportion of amino acid differences is indicated by the bar below. Note that the IFT-A complex protein WDR35 is related to TULP4. The NCBI accession numbers of the various members are as follows: Hs TUB, NP_813977.1; Hs TULP3, NP_003315.2; Hs TULP2, NP_003314.2; Hs TULP1, NP_003313.3; Hs TULP4, NP_064630.2; Dm TULP, NP_995911.1; Ce TUB-1, NP_495710.1; Cr TLP2, XP_001692116.1; Ce TUB-2, NP_490913.2; Dm TUSP, NP_651573.4; AtTLP7, NP_564627.1; AtTLP10, NP_173899.1; AtTLP5, NP_564485.1; AtTLP1, NP_849894.1; AtTLP6, NP_175160.2; AtTLP2, NP_849975.1; AtTLP3, NP_850481.1; AtTLP9, NP_187289.1; AtTLP11, NP_197369.2; AtTLP4, NP_176385.1; AtTLP8, NP_173059.1; Hs WDR35, NP_001006658.1. For a more detailed phylogenetic tree see http://www.treefam.org (accession TF314076). (b) Comparison of the domain structures of the tubby family proteins from different species. The percentage amino acid similarity of the tubby domain with respect to the canonical human TUB tubby domain is shown below each protein. Hs, Homo sapiens; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster; Ce, Caenorhabditis elegans; Cr, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; IFT-A, Intraflagellar transport complex A; SOCS, suppressor of cytokine signaling.