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Table 1 Previously unknown toxins identified in the platypus venom gland transcriptome data

From: Novel venom gene discovery in the platypus

Number of platypus venom genes Toxin family Range of percent identities to Tox-Prot proteins Venom homologue examples Predicted effects (related to envenomation symptoms) Example references
26 Serine protease (kallikrein plus other) 27-62 Blarina toxin (shrew); gilatoxin (lizard); trocarin D (snake) Coagulation; inflammation; nociperception; smooth muscle contraction; vasodilation [2830]
18 Stonustoxin-like/B30.2 (PRY-SPRY) domains 26-51 Stonustoxin (stonefish); ohanin (snake) Hemolysis; edema; pain [51, 53, 54]
10 Kunitz type protease inhibitor 44-59 Beta-bungarotoxin (snake) Hemostatic effects; inflammation; neurotoxic; protective effects for storage [40]
7 Zinc metalloproteinase 28-46 Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin (snake) Inflammation; myonecrosis [28, 37]
7 Latrotoxin-like (ankyrin repeat domains) 25-33 Alpha-latrotoxin (spider) Pain [45]
6 CRiSP (Cysteine rich secretory protein) 33-68 Helothermine (lizard); cysteine-rich venom protein (snake) Muscle wasting; smooth muscle relaxation [46, 47]
1 Sea anemone cytolytic toxin-like 36 Actinoporins (sea anemone) Hemolysis; pain; pore formation [48]
2 Unknown; IG domains 0 - Unknown -
2 Mamba intestinal toxin-like 56 MIT1 (snake) Open cation channels; unknown [72]
1 C-type lectin domain-containing 38 Rhodocytin (snake); however, contains several additional domains Unknown (does not match envenomation symptoms) -
1 Sarafotoxin-like 38 Sarafotoxin (snake) Unknown (does not match envenomation symptoms) -
1 VEGF 53 Vascular endothelial growth factor toxin (snake) Edema; vascular permeability [73]
1 DNAse II 35 Plancitoxin-1 (starfish) Apoptosis; DNA degradation [74]
Total 83