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Table 2 Dating of gene duplication of mitochondrial proteins compared to time when the mitochondrial targeting signal appeared in the protein sequence

From: Expansion of the human mitochondrial proteome by intra- and inter-compartmental protein duplication

Paralogs Duplication before the divergence of Targeting signal found in
TOP1MT, TOP1 Vertebrates Vertebrates (Gallus gallus)
TFB2M, DIMT1L Animals Animals (Anopheles gambiae)
NUDT8, NUDT7 Animals Animals (Drosophila melanogaster)
SIRT3, SIRT2 Coelomata to chordata* Vertebrates (Danio rerio)
HTRA2, HTRA1 Vertebrates Vertebrates (Danio rerio)
PDE12, CNOT6 Animals Chordates (Ciona intestinalis)
PECI, CDYL Animals Animals (Caenorhabditis elegans)
HINT2, HINT1 Animals Animals (Drosophila melanogaster)
GOT2, GOT1 Animals Animals (Drosophila melanogaster)
  1. The names of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are highlighted in bold. *While species overlap suggests a duplication at the root of chordata, the species distribution within the SIRT2 and SIRT3 branches suggest an earlier duplication and multiple losses in many evolutionary branches.