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Table 1 Detected metabolites and metabolite groups

From: Metabolic changes in schizophrenia and human brain evolution

    Effect size
Metabolite group Number of peaks* t-test
p-value
Hsch/Hc Hc/C Hc/R
Creatine 2 0.000 2.3 -2.3 -4.9
Lactate 6 0.005 1.5 -2.7 -0.6
Phosphocholine 1 0.034 1.0 -1.4 -0.3
Glycerophosphocholine 1 0.042 1.0 -1.5 -0.7
N-acetylaspartate 5 0.040 0.9 -2.2 -1.8
Acetate 1 0.025 -1.1 -0.3 0.1
Glycine 1 0.024 -1.1 3.3 4.2
Choline 1 0.010 -1.4 4.0 3.4
Unknown§ 6 0.002 -1.5 2.8 6.2
Taurine 3 0.080    
Glutamate/glutamine 1§¶ 4 0.114    
Glutamate/glutamine 2 4 0.130    
Glutamine§ 4 0.280    
Glutamate 1§¶ 3 0.381    
Scyllo-inositol 1 0.404    
Gamma-aminobutyric acid 5 0.470    
Myo-inositol 9 0.630    
Glutamate/proline 1 0.710    
Myo-inositol/taurine 3 0.797    
Glutamate 2 5 0.841    
N-acetylaspartylglutamate 1 0.845    
  1. *Number of peaks in the NMR spectrum corresponding to the metabolite/metabolite group. Comparison between metabolite concentrations in 10 human schizophrenia patients and 12 human control individuals. Effect size was calculated as the difference between means of metabolite concentrations between the groups normalized to the average standard deviation within the group. Positive values indicate higher concentration in group one, negative values higher concentration in group two. Hc, human controls; Hsch, human schizophrenia patients; C, chimpanzees; R, rhesus macaques. §These peaks show a high degree of spectral overlap with other unidentified baseline peaks. Glutamine/glutamate and glutamate peaks were separated into two independent groups based on the intensity correlation analysis (see Materials and methods).