Increased nuclear expression of cell cycle marker VCP corresponding with Wlds expression in mouse cerebellum. Confocal micrographs of cerebellar granule cells from (a-c) Wldsand (d-f) wild-type mice. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is shown in green, the nuclear marker TOPRO3 is shown in blue, and Wlds protein in red (panels a and d show VCP and TOPRO3; panels b and e show Wlds and TOPRO3; and panels c and f show all three markers). Note how VCP protein can be seen in nuclear puncta with high frequency where Wldsis being expressed (arrows in panels a and c show four out of nine examples in this field of view). The majority of Wlds puncta coincided with VCP puncta. Nuclear puncta of VCP were rarely observed in wild-type cerebellar granule cells. As expected, VCP was detectable as diffuse staining in the cytoplasm of neurons in both strains of mice. Scale bar = 20 μm.