Gene expression changes identified in aged males are mirrored in ovx female mice. (a,b) Comparison of wound gene expression change between human males (old/young; left) and estrogen-deprived young female mice (ovx/intact; right). Arrows indicate direction of change, green up and red down. (a) Estrogen-regulated genes are similarly changed in both mouse and human. (b) In contrast, a gene identified as age-associated is unchanged in wounds from ovx female mice. (c) Genes categorized as both estrogen-regulated and age-associated were either unchanged in mouse (indicating predominant age-association) or similarly changed in both mouse and human (indicating predominant estrogen-regulation). (d) Demonstration that selected array-identified genes are directly estrogen regulated in mouse primary macrophages and/or fibroblasts in vitro. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean; n = 3-6 per group.