Quantification of gene expression change by qPCR. Comparison of gene expression between normal skin (NS) and wounds (W) from young (pink) and old (blue) human subjects. (a) All estrogen-regulated genes tested displayed clear differential wound expression (red double-ended arrow) with more parity of expression in normal skin. (b) In contrast, genes identified as age-associated displayed pronounced changes in normal skin (blue double-ended arrow) of similar or greater magnitude than the wound gene expression change. n = 3-5 per group.