The SNP A/S ratio is a good measure for evolutionary constraints. Error bars represent 95th percentile confidence intervals from bootstrap resampling. (a) SNP A/S ratios correlate with Ka/Ks ratios from human-mouse alignments. Proteins were grouped into bins of equal intervals (interval = 0.05) according to their Ka/Ks ratios, and the SNP A/S ratio was calculated for each bin. (b) SNP A/S ratios correlate negatively with residue conservation scores from protein sequence alignments. All residues were grouped into bins of equal intervals (interval = 0.5) according to their position specific alignment information taken from PSI-BLAST alignment profiles, and the SNP A/S ratio was obtained for each bin.