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Table 1 Classification and localization of AAA+ proteins

From: The AAA+ superfamily of functionally diverse proteins

Classification Cellular localization and evolutionary distribution   
Group Clade Family Localization Distribution* General function References
Extended AAA Classical AAA FtsH Chloroplast, mitochondria and bacterial membrane E/B Protein unfolding and degradation [36]
   Katanin Cytosol E Microtubule severing and disassembly [37]
   NSF/CDC48 Cytosol E/A Membrane fusion/ubiquitin system [38,39]
   Pex1/6 Peroxisome E Peroxisome biogenesis [40]
   Bcs1p Mitochondria E Cytochrome bc1 assembly [41]
   PAAA Cytosol/nucleus E/A Proteasome-associated protein unfolding and degradation [42]
  Other Rubisco activase Chloroplast E Activation of Rubisco [43]
   Rvb Cytosol and nucleus E/A Diverse (for example, DNA recombination/repair, transcription, snoRNP assembly) [44]
   ClpAB-D1 Cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplast E/A/B Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation/protein disaggregation [18]
   SpoVK Cytosol B Unknown (sporulation associated) [45]
   Ycf2 Chloroplast E Unknown [46]
   AFG1 Mitochondria E/B Unknown [47]
   Viral helicase Virus Viruses DNA recombination and repair [6]
HEC Clamp loader HolB/DnaX Cytosol B DNA replication and repair [48]
   RFC Nucleus E/A DNA replication and repair [48]
   WHIP Cytosol and nucleus E/B DNA replication and repair [49]
  Initiation DnaA/C Cytosol B DNA replication [50]
   ORC/Cdc6 Cytosol and nucleus E/A DNA replication [51]
  Other RuvB Cytosol B DNA recombination [52]
   IstB Cytosol B DNA transposition [53]
   HolA Cytosol B DNA replication and repair [48]
PACTT HCL HslU/ClpX Cytosol and mitochondria E/B Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation [18]
   ClpAB-D2/Torsin Cytosol, mitochondria, ER and chloroplast E/A/B Protease-associated protein unfolding and degradation/protein disaggregation/ER complex assembly [54]
   LonA Cytosol and mitochondria E/B Protein unfolding and degradation [55]
  Helix 2 insert MCM Cytosol and nucleus E/A DNA replication (helicase activity) [56]
   McrB/Unc-53 Cytosol and nucleus E/A/B DNA restriction/unknown [57]
   Midasin Nucleus E Maturation and nuclear export of ribosomes [58]
   MoxR Cytosol A/B Protein complex assembly [59]
   Chelatase Cytosol and chloroplast E/A/B Metal insertion [24]
   σ54 Activator Cytosol B Transcriptional activation [60]
   YifB Cytosol B Unknown [1]
   ComM Cytosol B Unknown [61]
  Other Dynein heavy chain Cytosol E Molecular transport and cilia/flagellar movement [29]
   LonB Membrane A Protein unfolding and degradation [55]
ExeA    Cytosol B Type II secretion [62]
STAND    Varied E/A/B Varied [63]
  1. *A, B and E refer to archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes, respectively.