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Table 1 Characteristics of chromatin modifiers and mutant ES cells

From: The impact of chromatin modifiers on the timing of locus replication in mouse embryonic stem cells

Name Protein function ES cell lines Phenotype of KO/DKO mice Phenotype of KO/DKO ES cells Reference
Mll HMTase: tri-methylation of H3K4 KO: High 6 Embryonic lethal (E11.5-14.5)
Homeotic transformations
Mis-regulation of Hox gene expression
Mis-regultion of Hox genes
Failure of in vitro differentiation to hematopoietic pre-cursors
[42-44]
Eed Subunit of PRC2 Cofactor for Ezh2 (H3K27 HMTase) KO: B1.3, G8.1 Embryonic lethal (E6.5)
Failure to maintain inactive X in trophoblast derivatives
Loss of H3K27me2/3
Reduced H3K27me1
Contribute to all tissues of chimeras
[4,45-47]
Dnmt1 Maintenance DNA methyl transferase KO: c/c Embryonic lethal (E11.5) Reduced DNA methylation level
Reduced differentiation
[36,48,49]
Dnmt 3a/3b De novo DNA methyl transferase DKO: clone 10 (early passage) Embryonic lethal (E11.5) Lack de novo DNA methylation activity DNA methylation levels slightly reduced in early passage (severly reduced in late passage cells)
Retains differentiation potential at early passages
[27,37,50]
Mbd3 Subunit of NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and HDAC complex) KO: Fix2 Embryonic lethal (implantation) Loss of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and HDAC) complex
Severe differentiation block
[38,51]
G9a HMTase: H3K9me H3K9me2 euchromatic WT: Col4
KO: 2-3
Tg: 15-3
Embryonic lethal (E12.5) Reduced H3K9me2
Increased H3K4me2, H3K9ac
Reduced H3K9 methylation in euchromatin
[18,25]
Suv39 h1/h2 H3K9me3 (hetero-chromatic) WT: wt26
DKO: DN57, DN72
Increased prenatal lethality
Growth retarded
B-cell lymphomas
Male sterility
Chromosome instablility in fibroblasts
Reduced H3K9me3 level; Reduced H3K9me3 at pericentric heterochromatin
Increased H3K27me3 at pericentric heterochromatin
Decreased CpG methylation of satellite repeats
Increased transcription of major/minor satellite
[25,35,52,53]
Dicer RNase, essential for siRNA/miRNA pathway in mammals WT: D3
KO: D3-S5, D3-S6
Embryonic lethal (E7.5) Increased transcription of repeats Slow growth [30,54,55]
  1. miRNA, microRNA.