Phylogenetic relations among felid species and their papillomaviruses. (a) Co-evolutionary relationships revealed by the feline multigene (left) and papillomavirus (PV) complete coding genome (right) phylogenetic trees. Identical tree topologies were reconstructed by using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods for all data sequences from Johnson and coworkers  and for the amino acid translation of the concatenated PV genes. Bayesian posterior support values (bold) and ML bipartition values for relationships are shown on the branches. The scale bars indicate the genetic distance (nucleotide substitutions per site). Scientific names and branches in the host phylogenetic tree are color coded to depict recent and historic zoogeographic regions shown on the map (Oriental, Palearctic, Ethiopian, Neotropical, and Nearctic), as inferred by Johnson and coworkers  from current distributions, fossil records, and phylogenetic analysis. Branches in black reflect either less certain historical interpretations or geographic distributions beyond one. For the viral phylogenetic tree, the same color code is used for the abbreviated virus name, depicting the geographical region from which the respective virus was isolated. Outgroups are Prionodon linsang (Pli) and Cryptoprocta ferox (Cfe) in the host tree, and Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV1) and canine oral PV (COPV) in the virus tree. (b) Branch length correlation (nucleotide substitutions per site) for the feline and PV phylogenetic trees. Outgroup lineages were excluded from this analysis. FdPV1, Felis domesticus PV type 1; LrPV1, Lynx rufus PV type 1; PcPV1, Puma concolor PV type 1; PlpPV1, Panthera leo persica PV type 1; UuPV1, Uncia uncia PV type 1.