The structure and membrane topology of reticulons. (a) Structure of reticulon proteins. Numbers refer to the exons that encode the protein regions. Black ovals represent hydrophobic regions. GenBank accession numbers are as in Figure 1. (b) Possible topologies of reticulon proteins in membranes. Although eight or more conformations are possible, only those for which evidence exists are depicted. Different topologies in different cell types and different membranes may enable reticulons to carry out diverse roles in the cell.