Evolution of the AtMIKC* network. After duplication of one ancestral AGL30-like gene and one ancestral AGL66-like gene, the paralogs AGL30 and AGL65 maintained the ability to interact with AGL66 and AGL104, resulting in the complex AtMIKC* network that exists in pollen of extant Arabidopsis. Although AGL30, AGL66, and AGL104 expression is initiated early, starting from the unicellular microspore stage, AGL65 is only activated later, during the tricellular stage. This change in expression profile may have been responsible for the apparent loss of control over numerous genes by the AGL65 complexes (which was suggested by our analysis in Additional data file 4). BCP, bicellular pollen; MPG, mature pollen grains; TCP, tricellular pollen; UNM, unicellular microspores.