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Table 1 Functional characterization of non-coding elements significantly conserved only in primates

From: Detection of weakly conserved ancestral mammalian regulatory sequences by primate comparisons

  In vitro (HepG2) In vivo (mice)
Primate specific element DNase I HS Reporter transfection Gene transfer
LDLR_PS1 No No activity No activity
LDLR_PS2 Yes Enhancer* (~5.1-fold) Enhancer (~5.5-fold)
LDLR_PS3 No No activity No activity
LDLR_PS4 Yes Enhancer (~3.7-fold) Enhancer (~4.2-fold)
SREBF1_PS No Silencer (~2.4-fold) Silencer (~1.8-fold)
CYP7A1_PS No No activity No activity
  1. *In 293T cells. Human elements with primate-specific conservation were tested for their ability to drive reporter gene expression in vitro in HepG2 cells and in vivo in mouse liver. The genomic regions containing primate-conserved elements were also examined for the presence of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DNase I HS) in HepG2 cells. Enhancer or silencer strength is shown as fold increase or decrease relative to the promoter alone in luciferase assays.