Evolutionary conservation of six primate-conserved sequences in anthropoid primates, but not between human and mouse or dog. (a) Sequence alignment of a representative primate-conserved sequence LDLR_PS4. Similar alignments for LDLR_PS2 and SREBF1_PS are provided as Additional data files 1 and 2, respectively. (b) The constraint factor of a sequence element is defined as the nucleotide substitution rate (total branch length of the phylogenetic tree) within the element relative to the background non-coding rate in the aligned sequences. Constraint factors in the anthropoid primate comparisons (green bars) are consistently well below one (dashed line). Human-mouse (dotted) and human-dog (white) constraint factor ranges of the six sequences are broader, mostly exceeding one at the upper limit. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.