Effects of modifications in the S score (from a t-value) on score reproducibility. Each panel contains a scatter plot, in which each point represents two independent score measurements for a single pair of genes. All panels use the same raw data, but they differ in the scoring procedure used. The two scores come from the two possible pairings of antibiotic resistance markers with gene mutations. (a) Standard t-values in which colony sizes are normalized according to the mean colony size on the experimental plate. (b) Standard t-values using the normalization procedure described here. (c) Standard t-values with the normalizations described here and the removal of incorrect strains and experiments. (d) S scores without minimum bounds on variances. (e) Full S scores.