Collaborative organization of the Northeast Structural Genomics (NESG) consortium. (a) Paper nodes linked by co-authorship edges show four major groups of publications, roughly corresponding to individual laboratories from which they were published. Here, three of the groups are fairly well connected to form the central nodes in the graph. The fourth set of papers is internally well connected but is only linked to other groups by a single paper with shared authors. (b) When nodes are drawn as authors with co-authorship edges, a slightly different pattern emerges. The principal investigators from each laboratory tend to form central anchor points, from which other laboratory members branch out. Links also connect collaborating laboratories. (c) Yet another pattern arises when shared Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms are used to connect papers. As expected, a large and well connected group of nodes is drawn in the center. Several unconnected nodes lining the periphery show papers that are unrelated in subject matter to the main group. (d) When papers are linked by shared zip codes, large clusters arise corresponding to geographically disparate laboratories. Here, the main clusters are the Universities of Washington, Columbia, Yale, Buffalo, and Rutgers.