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Table 1 Sites and functions of histone lysine methylation

From: The SET-domain protein superfamily: protein lysine methyltransferases

Histone lysine Function(s) Histone lysine methyltransferases*
H1 K26 Transcriptional silencing Hs EZH2 (catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 3) [3]
H3 K4 Transcriptional activation Dm Trx; Hs MLL1 (ALL-1, HRX), MLL2 (ALR-1), and MLL3 (HALR)
  Transcriptional activation and elongation Hs SET1; Sc SET1
  Transcriptional activation Hs SET7/9
  Transcriptional activation (in conjunction with ASH1-mediated methylation of H3 K9 and H4 K20) Dm ASH1
H3 K9 Heterochromatic and euchromatic silencing; DNA methylation Dm Su(var)3-9; Hs and Mm SUVAR39H1 and UVAR39H2; Sp CLR4
  Euchromatic silencing; DNA methylation Hs and Mm G9a; Hs GLP1 (EuHMT1)
  Euchromatic silencing Hs and Mm ESET (SETDB1)
  Heterochromatic silencing; DNA methylation Nc DIM-5
  Heterochromatic silencing; DNA methylation At KRYPTONITE
  Transcriptional activation (in conjunction with ASH1-mediated methylation of H3 K4 and H4 K20) Dm ASH1
H3 K27 Euchromatic silencing Dm E(z); Hs EZH1 and EZH2 (catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2)
  Euchromatic silencing Hs and Mm G9a
H3 K36 Transcriptional elongation and silencing Sc SET2
  Transcriptional regulation Mm NSD1
H3 K79 Demarcation of euchromatin Sc and Hs DOT1 (a non-SET domain histone lysine methyltransferase)
H4 K20 Cell cycle-dependent silencing, mitosis and cytokinesis [52,53] Hs and Dm SET8
  Heterochromatic silencing Dm, Mm, and Hs SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 [48]
  Transcriptional regulation Mm NSD1
  Transcriptional activation (in conjunction with ASH1-mediated methylation of H3 K4 and H3 K9) Dm ASH1
  Recruitment of checkpoint protein Crb2 to sites of DNA damage Sp SET9 [49]
  1. Histone lysine methylation sites, functions, and associated histone lysine methyltransferases, which are listed according to the lysine that they methylate. *Species abbreviations: At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster; Hs, Homo sapiens; Mm, Mus musculus; Nc, Neurospora crassa; Sc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Sp, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Adapted from [54-56]; additional references listed in the table are those not cited in these reviews.