Structures of opsins and of the chromophore retinal. (a) A model of the secondary structure of bovine rhodopsin. Amino-acid residues that are highly conserved in the whole opsin family are shown with a gray background. The retinal-binding site (K296) and the counterion position (E113) are marked with bold circles, as is E181, the counterion in opsins other than the vertebrate visual and non-visual ones. C110 and C187 form a disulfide bond. (b) The chemical structures of the 11-cis and all-trans forms of retinal. (c) The crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin (Protein DataBank ID: 1U19 [PDB:1U19]). The chromophore 11-cis-retinal, K296 and E113 are shown in stick representation in the ringed area. (d) The structure of the Schiff base linkage formed by retinal within the bovine opsin, together with the counterion that stabilizes it.