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Table 1 Activated metabolic pathways during adipocyte differentiation and their key enzymes (rate limiting steps)

From: Molecular processes during fat cell development revealed by gene expression profiling and functional annotation

Pathway Enzyme/Protein name Accession number Number Cluster
Urea cycle and arginine-citrulline cycles Arginine succinate synthase NP_031520 128 1/10
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 1 XP_127550 446 7
  Myoinositol 1-phosphate synthase A1 NP_076116 156 8
Cholesterol biosynthesis/keto-body synthesis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 NP_666054 178 4
  3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase XP_127496 619 12
Triglyceride hydrolysis (fatty acid assimilation) Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) NP_032535 14 6
β-Oxidation Acetyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acad) NP_780533 61 6
  Acetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain (Acadm) NP_031408 153 6/9
  Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acad) Mm.6635 510 6
  Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain (Acadsb) NP_080102 220 9
Triglyceride metabolism Adipose triglyceride lipase (Pnpla2/Atgl) NP_080078 157 6
CoA biosynthesis Pantothenate kinase 3 NP_666074 140 6
Anaplerotic processes Pyruvate carboxylase NP_032823 149 6
Branched chain amino acid metabolism (AKA metabolism) Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase E1, α polypeptide NP_031559 193 3/9
Methylation S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase NP_057870 66 8
  Methionine adenosyltransferase II, α NP_663544 350 2
Unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 NP_033153 305 6
Nucleotide metabolism Xanthine dehydrogenase NP_035853 361 2
Taurin biosynthesis Cysteine dioxygenase NP_149026 271 7
NH4 + metabolism/glutamate Glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase) NP_032157 318 7
Glycolysis Pyruvate kinase 3 NP_035229 247 8
Substrate cycle (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis) Fructose bisphosphatase 2 NP_032020 175 9
Nucleotide biosynthesis Deoxycytidine kinase NP_031858 363 8
  Ribonucleotide reductase M2 NP_033130 448 8
Pentose phophate shunt Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (AI785303) XP_181411 533 9
NAD(P) biosynthesis Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor NP_067499 327 9
Polyamine biosynthesis Ornithine decarboxylase, structural NP_038642 212 10
Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis GTP cyclohydrolase 1 NP_032128 259 10
Purin biosynthesis Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase NP_742158 287 11
Asparagine biosynthesis Asparagine synthetase NP_036185 109 12
Long chain fatty acids ELOVL family member 6, elongation of long chain fatty acids NP_569717 162 12
Serine biosynthesis Phosphoserine phosphatase NP_598661 261 12
Gluconeogenesis PEPCK 2 (Riken 9130022B02) NP_083270 393 12
Prostaglandin E biosynthesis Prostaglandin E synthase (ri|2410099E23; ri|9230102G02) ri|2410099E23
ri|9230102G02
539
540
9
  1. CoA, coenzyme A.