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Table 1 Properties of human COX-1 and COX-2 and the genes encoding them

From: The cyclooxygenases

Property COX-1 COX-2
Chromosomal location of gene 9q32-q33.3 1q25.2-25.3
Copy number of gene Single Single
Gene size About 22 kb About 8 kb
Number of exons 11 10
Number of introns 10 9
Length of primary mRNA 2.8 kb 4.5 kb
Length of differentially polyadenylated variants 4.5 kb, 5.2 kb 4.0 kb, 2.8 kb
Lengths of splice variants See [13,34] See [13,34]
Length of coding region 1,797 nucleotides 1,812 nucleotides
Putative transcription regulatory elements found in:   
   promoter TATA-less TATA box
   5' upstream region* AP-2, GATA-1, NF-IL6, NFκB, PEA-3, SP-1, SSRE AP-2, C/EBP, CRE, GATA-1, GRE, NF-IL6, NFκB, PEA-3, SP-1
   3' untranslated region   AUUUA repeats
Expression Constitutive Inducible (by cytokines, growth factors and so on [10,35])
Length of protein (with signal peptide) 599 amino acids 604 amino acids
Length of mature protein (without signal peptide) 576 amino acids 581 amino acids
Number of glycosylation sites 3 3-4 (variable)
Cofactors Heme Heme
Substrates Arachidonic acid Arachidonic acid and others
Quaternary structure Homodimer Homodimer
Subcellular location Endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope
  1. Information from [10,13,35]. *Abbreviations: CRE, cyclic AMP response element; GATA-1, binding site containing GATA sequence bound by the GATA 1 transcription factor; GRE, glucocorticoid-response element; SSRE, shear-stress response element; other abbreviations denote the transcription factors bound by the regulatory elements shown: AP-2, activator protein 2; C/EBP, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein; NF-IL6, nuclear factor for interleukin 6; NFκB, nuclear factor κB; PEA-3, polyoma enhancer activator; SP-1, transcription factor SP-1.