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Table 2 Developmental functions of mouse Wnt genes

From: The Wnts

Gene Natural allele Phenotype of knockout or other functions References
Wnt1 swaying Loss of a portion of the midbrain and cerebellum [74,75,129,130]
   Deficiency in dorsal neural-tube derivatives, including neural-crest cells in double knockout with Wnt3a [131]
Wnt2   Placental defects [132]
Wnt3   Defects in axis formation and gastrulation [84]
   Defects in hair growth and structure [133,134]
Wnt3a vestigial tail Defects in somite and tailbud development [102,135-137]
   Deficiency in dorsal neural-tube derivatives, including neural crest cells in double knockout with Wnt1 [131]
   Loss of hippocampus [138]
Wnt4   Defects in kidney development [76]
   Defects in female development; absence of Müllerian duct, ectopic synthesis of testosterone in females [77]
   Defects in mammary gland morphogenesis [78]
Wnt5a   Truncated limbs, shortened anterior-posterior axis, reduced number of proliferating cells [139]
Wnt7a postaxial hemimelia Defects in limb polarity [79]
   Female infertility due to failure of Müllerian duct regression [80,140]
   Defects in uterine patterning [141]
   Defects in synapse maturation in the cerebellum [81]
Wnt7b   Placental defects [142]
Wnt10b   Inhibition of adipogenesis [143]