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Table 1 An evolutionary view - vegetative desiccation tolerance in plants

From: What makes desiccation tolerable?

Order/ Tolerance characteristics Developmental complexity Mechanisms of tolerance
Liverworts/ Rapid desiccation tolerated; Anatomically primitive Cell integrity maintained during drying
hornworts/ Some protection mechanisms No vasculature Rehydration leads to damage
mosses focus on repair mechanisms   Rapid recovery
  photosynthetic-apparatus maintained   Presence of non-reducing sugars, dehydrins and
       rehydrins appear
    Pre-stress existence of mRNA in RNPs
Selaginellales, Slower desiccation required; Vascular tissues develop  
Isoetales, photosynthetic-apparatus maintained   Scarcity of data
Lycopodiales   Epidermis appears  
Equisetum/ Slow desiccation required Increasing anatomical and Scarcity of data
Ferns      developmental complexity  
   Epidermis appears  
Gymnosperms No vegetative desiccation Beginning seed desiccation Scarcity of data
     tolerance    tolerance  
Angiosperms (Re)-discovery of vegetative Established seed desiccation Transcripts for proteins typical for drying
     desiccation tolerance    tolerance    seeds induced in vegetative tissues
Monocots Slow desiccation required   Transcripts of unknown function homologous
   Poaceae Focus on protection of      to constitutively expressed moss genes
   Liliaceae    existing structures      are induced
Dicots Photosynthetic-apparatus either maintained   LEA proteins, sugars and oligosaccharides,
   Hamamelidaceae    or reduced during desiccation   Dehydrins and rehydrins in complex gene families
   Labiatae    Tolerance inducible, ABA influence, sugars may be
   Gesneriaceae       present or inducible
   Scrophulariaceae    Transcription factors, vesicular traffic
  1. Included are major systematic orders of plants in increasing organizational complexity and following plant appearance during evolution. Monocots - plants with a single cotyledon (for example, grasses [Poaceae]; Sporobolus stapfianus is a desiccation tolerant species in the Poaceae family); dicots - two cotyledons (for example, Arabidopsis thaliana; Craterostigma plantagineum is in this class). Tortula ruralis is, among the mosses, the best studied desiccation tolerant species. ABA, abscisic acid; LEA, late embryogenesis abundant.