The reticulons: a family of proteins with diverse functions
© BioMed Central Ltd 2007
Published: 28 December 2007
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© BioMed Central Ltd 2007
Published: 28 December 2007
The reticulon family is a large and diverse group of membrane-associated proteins found throughout the eukaryotic kingdom. All of its members contain a carboxy-terminal reticulon homology domain that consists of two hydrophobic regions flanking a hydrophilic loop of 60-70 amino acids, but reticulon amino-terminal domains display little or no similarity to each other. Reticulons principally localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, and there is evidence that they influence endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi trafficking, vesicle formation and membrane morphogenesis. However, mammalian reticulons have also been found on the cell surface and mammalian reticulon 4 expressed on the surface of oligodendrocytes is an inhibitor of axon growth both in culture and in vivo. There is also growing evidence that reticulons may be important in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The diversity of structure, topology, localization and expression patterns of reticulons is reflected in their multiple, diverse functions in the cell.
Proteins of the reticulon family are present in all eukaryotic organisms examined and range in size from 200 to 1,200 amino acids. The vertebrate proteins of this family are called reticulons (RTNs) and those found in other eukaryotes are called reticulon-like proteins (RTNLs). All family members contain the reticulon homology domain (RHD), a conserved region at the carboxy-terminal end of the molecule consisting of two hydrophobic regions flanking a hydrophilic loop. Reticulons have been identified in the genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other eukaryotes, but not in archaea or bacteria [1–6]. The ubiquity of reticulons in the eukaryotic kingdom is consistent with a highly conserved function and/or a diversity of functions.
Nearly all reticulon genes contain multiple introns and exons, and most are alternatively spliced into multiple isoforms . Intron losses and gains over the course of evolution have given rise to the large, diverse reticulon family. The presence of reticulons in eukaryotic but not prokaryotic organisms and their close association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) suggest that reticulons evolved along with the eukaryotic endomembrane system.
In contrast to the highly conserved carboxy-terminal RHD, the amino-terminal regions of reticulons display no sequence similarity at all, even among paralogs within the same species . Furthermore, the expression patterns of different reticulons and their splice isoforms can be variable, even within the same organism [9–11]. This divergence in sequence and expression is consistent with evolution of species- and cell-type-specific roles for reticulons . This is particularly clear in the mammalian RTN family, in which the longest isoform of RTN4, RTN4A, also known as Nogo-A, has been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration in models of injury [8, 13–18]. Interestingly, RTN4A was found to be absent in fishes, organisms in which there is extensive regeneration of the CNS after injury . Divergent results for genetic knockouts of different regions and isoforms of RTN4 suggest that the amino-terminal domain might contribute to the inhibition of nerve regeneration after injury . Thus, the divergent reticulon amino-terminal domains appear to carry out species- and cell-specific roles, whereas the RHD may carry out more basic cellular functions.
The RHD loop region has been detected both on the surface of cells and intracellularly, and it has been suggested that the RHD hydrophobic regions might either span the ER membrane or plasma membrane completely or might double back on themselves to form a hairpin (Figure 2b). Antibodies against the amino-terminal domain of RTN4 bind to the surface of chick oligodendrocytes in live spinal cord explants  and cultured oligodendrocytes interact specifically with both amino-terminal domain-specific antibodies and antibodies directed against the RTN4 66-amino-acid loop (66-loop) . These findings suggest that the amino terminus and the 66-loop project into extracellular space, and therefore that the first RHD hydrophobic region must double back on itself in the membrane. However, other data suggest that the amino-terminal domain is intracellular. Antibodies against the 66-loop region of RTN4 detect small amounts of this epitope on the surface of live COS-7 cells, but antibodies against c-Myc tags fused to either the amino or the carboxy terminus do not bind to live cells .
More recent data from non-neuronal cells in which RTN4 is overexpressed strongly support a third model, in which most of both the amino-terminal domain and the 66-loop are cytoplasmic. In COS cells treated with maleimide polyethylene glycol, cysteines in the amino-terminal domain and the loop regions of ER-associated RTN4 were found to be modified by the reagent after detergent disruption of the plasma membrane but not the ER membrane . Cysteines in the carboxy-terminal region were only partially modified. All these results suggest that mammalian reticulons might have different topologies in the ER and plasma membranes; such multiple conformations may enable them to carry out multiple roles in the cell. Another protein with multiple membrane topologies is the mammalian prion protein (PrP); overexpression of a certain transmembrane form of the prion protein, CtmPrP, causes neurodegenerative disease distinct from that caused by the natural pathogenic prion form PrPSc [19, 20]. Another possibility is that reticulons assume different topologies in different cell types: the reticulon amino-terminal region has been detected only in the cytoplasm in COS-7 cells, but has been found on both the surface and in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes. Again, this may reflect the diverse roles of reticulon proteins in different cell types.
The solution structure of the RHD loop of RTN4, known as Nogo66, has recently been probed by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Nogo66 is soluble in pure water and consists of three alpha helices, two short flanking one long, spanning residues 6-15, 21-40 and 45-53, followed by the unstructured residues 55-60 [21, 22]. The Nogo66 loop is involved in several RTN4-specific signaling cascades, including interaction with the Nogo receptor (NogoR) to inhibit neurite outgrowth , and with the cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein (Caspr)  to mediate the localization of potassium channels at axonal paranodes. The human RTN1 and RTN3 66-loops share 71% and 63% identity with the RTN4 loop; mouse RTN1 and RTN3 identity with human RTN4 is 67% and 59%. Despite this high degree of identity, the RTN1 66-loop does not bind to NogoR, and the function of the 66-loops in RTN1 and RTN3 is unknown in both mammals and lower organisms.
As mentioned above, the amino-terminal regions of different reticulons are highly divergent in sequence. The amino-terminal domains of the human RTN4 isoforms appear to be highly unstructured, even under physiological conditions. In silico analysis and measurements by CD and NMR of the human isoforms RTN4A and RTN4B reveal a high degree of disorganization, with only short alpha helices and beta sheets that exist transiently . Recent studies have shown that intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) are more likely to form multiprotein complexes than are proteins with stable tertiary structure , are better able to 'moonlight' - carry out alternative functions  - and may fold upon binding to their partners . It has been shown that up to 33% of eukaryotic proteins contain long disordered regions, compared with 2% of archeal proteins . The characterization of RTN4 as an intrinsically unstructured/disordered protein may explain its involvement in many physiological processes, as explained below.
The first known reticulon protein, RTN1, was identified from a cDNA in neural tissue  and subsequently characterized as an antigen specific to neuroendocrine cells . This so-called neuroendocrine-specific protein (NSP) was later renamed reticulon when it was discovered by both immunohistochemical and biochemical methods to be associated with the ER in COS-1 cells . Reticulons do not contain an ER localization sequence per se, but a single RHD hydrophobic region is sufficient to target an enhanced green fluorescent protein-RTN fusion protein to the ER, whereas deletion of the RHD abolishes association with the ER [13, 31]. Reticulons have been shown to localize to the ER in yeast, Arabidopsis, C. elegans, Xenopus, Drosophila and mammals [2, 3, 5, 6, 32–34]. Most reticulon research has focused on RTN4 in the CNS and its effects on neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. However, the presence of reticulons in all eukaryotic organisms and their ubiquitous ER-associated expression indicate a more general role. We shall focus on three areas of reticulon localization and function: ER-associated roles, oligodendrocyte-associated roles in inhibition of neurite outgrowth, and the role of reticulons in neurodegenerative diseases.
Reticulons are also involved in intracellular trafficking - a close cousin of vesicle formation and recycling. Overexpression of RTN3 in HeLa cells prevents retrograde transport of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER . In yeast, RTNL1B forms complexes with Yip3p, the yeast ortholog of the mammalian Rab-GDI displacement factor (GDF). Small GTPases of the Rab family facilitate vesicle trafficking between organelles, and are regulated by GDFs . In C. elegans, inhibition of RET-1 and YOP-1 disrupted nuclear envelope assembly, and of 29 Rabs screened, depletion of Rab5 mimicked this phenotype closely . In a screen in human cells for GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which inhibit Rab function, the protein TBC1D20 was found to be a GAP for Rab1 and Rab2, and in the same study, interaction between RTN1C and TBC1D20 was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen, a further argument for a role for reticulons as regulators of Rab-regulated intracellular trafficking .
In mammalian cells, reticulons may also play a role in apoptosis. Both RTN1C and what is now known to be RTN4A were identified in a screen for interactors with Bcl-XL, a powerful inhibitor of apoptosis . RTN1C was found to inhibit Bcl-XL, and RTN4A was found to inhibit both Bcl-XL and another apoptosis inhibitor, Bcl-2, demonstrating a pro-apoptotic role for reticulons. More recently, RTN1C was shown to modulate apoptosis by upregulating the sensitivity of the ER to stressors in neuroblastoma cells . Several labs have shown that RTN3 also enhances apoptosis via interaction with Bcl-2 [46–48]. Although these and other data indicate that reticulons may have a role in tumor suppression via upregulation of apoptosis, this topic is not without controversy .
The longest isoform of RTN4, RTN4A, has been extensively characterized in the mammalian CNS (recently reviewed by Liu et al. ). It had long been known that in contrast to the myelin of the peripheral nervous system, myelin from the CNS appeared to prevent neuronal regeneration after injury . In 1988, by size fractionation of rat CNS myelin, Caroni and Schwab discovered a 250 kDa inhibitor of neurite outgrowth . This protein was later identified as a novel reticulon (RTN4A) and also named Nogo-A after its inhibitory effect on neuronal regeneration [8, 13, 14]. As the protein is generally called by this name in neuronal regeneration studies, we shall use that name in the following discussion. GrandPré et al.  showed that the extracellular/ER luminal portion of Nogo-A, the 66-loop termed Nogo66, is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. The receptor for Nogo66 was subsequently identified and termed NogoR . Inhibition of NogoR using the antagonist peptide NEP1-40 releases myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth in culture, and both the acute intrathecal delivery and delayed systemic delivery of NEP1-40 promotes axonal regeneration of corticospinal tract fibers after dorsal hemisection in rats [18, 53–55]. Work on the amino-terminal domain of Nogo-A demonstrated its capacity to induce growth-cone collapse independent of NogoR via a region now called Δ20 [16, 23], whereas another amino-terminal region, termed Nogo-A-24, is known to enhance the binding affinity of Nogo66 for NogoR when fused to Nogo66 . Interestingly, the RHD region common to all isoforms of Nogo (RTN4) is alone sufficient to delay nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush .
Numerous in vivo studies in animals have found that either genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of the Nogo-A-NogoR interaction promotes axon growth and behavioral recovery after spinal cord injury [17, 18, 53, 54, 57–62], and significant improvement of recovery after similar prevention of Nogo-A action is also seen after stroke injury [63–65]. The field is not free from controversy, however [66, 67]. The genetic background can alter the effects of Nogo inhibition , and studies of spinal cord injury in Nogo-knockout animals generated in different laboratories have yielded variable results [69–71]. The weight of evidence for a role for Nogo-A as an inhibitor of neurite outgrowth and a limitor of axon growth in spinal cord injury, however, make it a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Indeed, clinical trials of anti-Nogo antibodies are already under way.
Co-receptors and signal transducers in the Nogo-A-NogoR interaction
Increases binding affinity of Nogo-A to Nogo receptor (NogoR); binds NogoR directly
Mediates fibroblast and growth cone collapse independently of NogoR
Neurotrophin receptor; binds NogoR and mediates inhibition of neurite outgrowth via myelin-associated inhibitors
Binds NogoR; activates Rho in complex with p75 and NogoR; mediates Nogo66-induced neurite outgrowth inhibition
Binds NogoR, activates Rho in complex with LINGO-1 and NogoR; absence attenuates myelin inhibition of neurite outgrowth
Kinase activity required for neurite outgrowth but EGFR does not bind NogoR
NogoR and all its putative co-receptors rely on the small GTPase RhoA for their downstream effects. Upon RhoA activation as a result of NogoR signaling, Rho-activated kinase (ROCK) stimulates actinomyosin activity, causing growth-cone collapse [50, 81]. Blocking Rho activity either pharmacologically or with dominant-negative RhoA releases Nogo66-mediated neurite outgrowth inhibition in vitro [82–85].
Many aspects of our knowledge of the reticulon protein family remain incomplete. There is no consensus on the mechanism(s) underlying the ER-associated function of reticulons, and debate continues over the role of mammalian Nogo-A in the inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The most exciting frontier of reticulon research, however, is in the field of neurodegenerative disease. There is growing evidence that reticulons may have a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and perhaps hereditary spastic paraplegia.
In 2004 it was found that all four human reticulon proteins interact with the enzyme that produces the pathologic agent in Alzheimer's disease. He et al.  showed that BACE1, the δ-secretase that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), co-immunoprecipitates with RTN1, RTN2, RTN3 and RTN4 . In vitro, overexpression of a single RTN reduced the levels of Aβ produced by HEK-293 cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP, and conversely, knockdown of RTN3 by RNA interference increased Aβ levels . More recently, Murayama and colleagues screened for proteins that interact with BACE1 and identified RTN3 and RTN4 . These authors also demonstrated decreased Aβ production in cells expressing the Swedish mutant . Notably, in a subtractive hybridization screen, Yokota and colleagues  found that human RTN3 was downregulated in the temporal lobes of Alzheimer's patients. Although these data are intriguing, the exact role of reticulons in Alzheimer's disease remains unknown, and further investigation is needed to confirm whether these proteins may be potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.
Reticulons have also been found to be involved in ALS. In an ALS mouse model expressing human superoxide dismutase (SOD) containing a disease-causing dominant mutation, Dupuis et al.  found differential up- and downregulation of RTN4A and RTN4C mRNA compared with wild-type mice. Jokic et al.  demonstrated that levels of RTN4 in muscle biopsies of ALS patients correlated with disease severity. Pradat et al.  found that expression of RTN4A in lower motor neuron syndromes was prognostic of ALS, but Wojcik and colleagues  have found recently that RTN4A expression is not unique to ALS. Genetic analysis of RTN4 in the SOD mouse model of ALS shows that it has a significant impact on survival . Importantly, this effect on survival does not seem to be due to a direct effect on mutant SOD levels (YSY and SMS, unpublished data), and may instead be related to the roles of RTN4A in vesicle formation and trafficking. It is of note that RTN4A levels in muscle increase in surgically denervated wild-type mice , and as mentioned above, other groups have found that changes in RTN4A expression are not necessarily specific to ALS . Considering the impact of RTN4 in the mouse model of ALS, however, this protein remains a possible candidate drug target for the disease.
Lastly, RTN4 may have a role in multiple sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Autoantibodies against the isoform A-specific region of RTN4 have been found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis . Interestingly, administration of exogenous anti-RTN4A antibodies protects against demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis . Spastin, the most commonly mutated protein in hereditary spastic paraplegia, was found to interact with RTN1 and RTN3 via yeast two-hybrid screening; the interaction between spastin and RTN1 was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization of the two proteins in transfected HeLa cells [97, 98].
Questions remain regarding all aspects of the reticulon family, from its most basic characteristics such as membrane topology to its partners in intracellular trafficking, to the downstream signaling molecules that effect the reticulons' influence on human disease. Despite the lack of consensus about the mechanism of action of reticulons in normal cellular function and in neurodegenerative disease, their involvement in several disease processes makes them important targets for therapeutic development.
This work was supported by an NIH Institutional Medical Scientist Training award to YSY and by grants to SMS from the NIH, the Wings for Life Foundation, the Falk Medical Research Trust and the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation.